Automotive Engine Air, EGR and Cooling Systems
Techonologies for emissions reduction
Efforts to meet future legislated emission requirements including those for carbon dioxide are leading to considerable innovation for improved powertrain performance. Leading these efforts is of course, vehicle electrification in its various forms for mild hybrids, full hybrids (serial and parallel), range extenders, plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have too been making significant strides in improving efficiency especially via developments in engine air, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and cooling systems:
- Downsizing, via boosting and direct fuel injection, is impacting air induction systems as efforts are made to improve engine efficiency and low-end torque.
- Packaging of under-the-hood components is an ongoing concern. The need to use these systems for various vehicle layouts (transverse and longitudinal) combined with the increased use of electrified components is a challenge for cooling and air induction systems.
- EGR has been embraced as a means of improving engine efficiency and reducing engine emissions. Various approaches are used including internal recirculation and low and high pressure EGR systems. The EGR technology selected has impacts on both the air induction and cooling system architectures.
- Cooling systems in the past have focused on minimizing component costs while fulfilling non-optimized engine requirements. Investments in advanced thermal management technologies offer significant performance improvements. Variable speed pumps and/or electronic coolant flow control are being developed. Such approaches minimize flow of coolant to the engine during warm-up but optimize coolant flow during warm engine operation so as to minimize friction and maximize engine thermodynamic efficiency.
- Component and engineering cost reduction is realized across different engine configurations through the use of modularization and component standardization. Air induction and cooling systems may offer such opportunities.
The ITB Group’s 2014 report follows up on its 2012 report and provides an in-depth analysis of the overall business, legislative and technical developments impacting the automotive engine air, EGR and cooling market.